Bladder Cancer

Glossary of Terms

I - L

Relating to or producing an immune response
In situ
A term used to indicate that cancerous cells are present in the lining of an organ but have not spread to the "meat" of the tissue.
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
A conventional x-ray test using dye to examine the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. This x-ray will look at the collecting system of the kidneys to determine the presence of an abnormality.
A technique that surgeons can use to visualize and even biopsy (take tissue samples of) organs inside of the abdomen without making large incisions. Very small incisions are made in the belly and small tubes (called trocars) are then inserted. Gas is pumped in through one of the tubes to create enough space to work in. The surgeon inserts a small camera through one of the tubes and examines the lining and contents of the abdominal cavity by looking at the projected image on the television screen. With specially designed laparascopic instruments, biopsies and fluid samples can be taken for examination.
Loco-regional cancer
A primary cancer that has spread to regional lymph nodes and/or resectable (removable) tissues. Removable tissues include some lymph nodes that are routinely removed in some surgical treatments for cancer.
Low Malignant potential (LMP) tumor
Low malignant potential (LMP) tumors are a borderline form of cancer that has a lower likelihood of eventual spread and invasion. This is a gray zone. A pathologist can distinguish a LMP tumor that does not tend to progress from other superficial bladder cancers that are more likely to eventually spread and progress.
Lymph nodes
Normal, round, raisin to grape-sized collections of lymphocytes (white blood cells) found throughout the body. Lymph nodes are connected to each other by lymphatic vessels. They normally help fight infection, but also are one of the first sites to which cancers spread. In general, the spread of cancer to lymph nodes portends a worse prognosis for the patient. There are exceptions to this.