Faculty & Resident Catalog

1889 - 2014

Analysis of Catalog Data

  Examples of analyses that can be done using the data contained in the Pathology Faculty and Resident Catalog are shown below. These analyses were performed in November 2014 and, naturally, will yield different totals as new doctors join or leave the department, get promoted, or change status (for example, from Resident to Faculty).


  Over the past 125 years the Johns Hopkins Hospital Department of Pathology has had 9 chairs (Figure 1). Dr. Welch was the first chair and is still the one who served the longest, with a 28-year record that seems impossible to beat.

Figure 1 also indicates the total number of primary faculty members and residents (separated by gender) who were part of the department during the year span of each chairmanship. Dr. Welch chaired the smallest department with a total of 48 faculty members; Dr. Jackson the largest one, with 402 faculty members.

{Figure 1}

  If we adjust these total numbers of faculty members by the number of years in each chairmanship, we realize that the department expanded the most during the Sanfilippo's chairmanship, with an average of 29 new faculty members per chair-year (Figure 2, blue line). When Dr. Sanfilippo started as chair in 1993, the departments of Anatomic Pathology (then called Pathology) and Clinical Pathology (then called Laboratory Medicine) were united into one department called Department of Pathology.

  Performing the same analysis for residents shows that the number of residents has been relatively stable from 1958 to present, averaging between 9 and 12 new residents per chair-year (Figure 2, red line).

{Figure 2}

Figure 1 also portrays the increasing representation of female pathologists throughout the years, an idea that can be visualized more clearly in Figure 3. The percentage of women among pathology faculty members was in the single digit up to 1968. Following the civil rights and feminist movements, the percentage of female pathologists at Johns Hopkins increased consistently, from 17% during the Heptinstall chair years to the current 40% range. Similar trend is seen for female pathologist residents. The first female resident was in 1968; the percentage increased to 17% in the Heptinstall chair years and to 44% in the Jackson chair years. In the current academic year 2014-15, 21 of the total 34 residents (62%) are women.

{Figure 3}

Faculty Members

  From the opening of the Johns Hopkins Hospital (May 15, 1889) to academic year 2014-15, the department of Pathology has featured 1,021 faculty members (754 males and 267 females) (Figure 4). 908 (661 M, 247 F) of the faculty members held a primary appointment in Pathology, and 113 (93 M and 20 F) held a primary appointment in another department and a joint appointment in Pathology.

{Figure 4}

  Of the faculty members, 20 (14 M, 6F) were awarded the honorary title of emeritus/emerita by the Board of Trustees in recognition of distinguished service and achievement.

  The 908 primary faculty members encompassed a total of 1,370 ranks: 759 were in the regular ranks of Instructor, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, or Professor (Figure 5), and 611 in the special ranks of Assistant, Research Associate, Visiting, Adjunct, or Lecturer (Figure 6). Of the 77 Professors, 16 were hired as Professor, while 61 rose to the rank of Professor while in the department.

{Figure 5} {Figure 6}

  The faculty members (emeritus years excluded) who served the greatest number of years are shown below (Figure 7).

{Figure 7}

  When analyzing the promotions of the primary faculty members in the regular track (Instructor, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and Professor) we identify a total of 306 promotions during the past 125 years: 120 from Instructor to Assistant Professor (Figure 8), 125 from Assistant Professor to Associate Professor (Figure 9), and 61 from Associate Professor to Professor (Figure 10). The average time for promotion to Assistant Professor was 2.1 years (median 1, minimum 1, maximum 15 years), for promotion to Associate Professor 5.7 years (median 5, minimum 1, maximum 15), and for promotion to full Professor 9.2 years (median 8, minimum 1, maximum 20).

{Figure 8}

{Figure 9}

{Figure 10}


  In January 1890, less than a year after the opening of the Johns Hopkins Hospital (May 1889), Dr. William Osler, first Physician-In-Chief (May 1889-June 1905), proposed to the Advisory Board of the Medical School the introduction of a Residency System. A copy of Osler's report, presented at the Board meeting on January 30, 1890, can be viewed here. Osler's residency system was adopted from the German training system, which permitted newly graduated physicians to spend several years living in the hospital to perfect their training. As in the German system, early residents at Hopkins remained for several years (for example Thayer was a resident for 7 years in medicine and MacCallum for 10 years in pathology). In fact, during his 16 years at Hopkins Osler trained only five medicine residents (Henry A. Lefleur, William S. Thayer, Thomas B. Futcher, Thomas McCrae, and Rufus I. Cole). The chiefs of the other two clinical services, William S. Halsted for surgery and Howard A. Kelly, promptly agreed with Osler's recommendation and selected their first residents. The first five resident surgeons were Frederick J. Brockway, Hardy Phippin, William H. Baltzell, Joseph C. Bloodgood, and Harvey Cushing. The first five resident gynecologists were Hunter Robb, Albert L. Stavely, William W. Russell, John G. Clark, and Thomas S. Cullen. The Pathologist-in-Chief, William H. Welch, also promptly agreed with Osler's proposal of a residency system since he was already using a similar type of training, called fellowship, in his Pathological Laboratory, even before the opening of the hospital.

  The first medical school class began courses on October 2, 1893 and graduated 15 physicians on June 15, 1897 {VIEW PICTURE}. By that time, the residency training system was in place and ready to accept the newly graduated residents. The first Hopkins residents appeared in the Johns Hopkins catalog for the academic year 1899-90 and therefore we can consider 1899 the official start of the residency system at Johns Hopkins, an approach that quickly spread across America. Many scholars consider the introduction of a residency system the greatest contribution of Dr. William Osler to medicine.

  From academic year 1899-1900 to 2014-15, the Johns Hopkins Hospital Department of Pathology has trained 555 residents, 407 males and 148 females (Figure 11).

{Figure 11}

  Of the residents, 84 (62 M and 22 F) stayed on as faculty members for two or more years. To view the list of these residents, click here. Therefore, the probability for a resident of becoming a faculty member is about 15% (84/555 = 15.1%), and the probability of a pathology faculty member having done a residency at Hopkins is about 9% (84/908 = 9.2%).