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Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology

Email rhruban@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 955-9132

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Pancreatic Cancer

Ralph H. Hruban, M.D.

Interim Director, Department of Pathology; Director, Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology
Deputy Director for Fund and Program Development
Primary Appointment in Pathology; Secondary Appointment in Oncology

My research is focused on pancreatic cancer. I collaborate extensively with Drs. Christine Iacobuzio-Donahue, Michael Goggins, Scott Kern, Anirban Maitra, and Bert Vogelstein in their studies of the molecular genetics of pancreatic carcinoma. I am particularly interested in the precursors of invasive pancreatic cancer and in the genetic basis for the clustering of pancreatic cancer in some families.

Blackford A, Parmigiani G, Kensler TW, Wolfgang CL, Jones S, Zhang X, Parsons DW, Lin JC, Leary RJ, Eshleman JR, Goggins M, Jaffee EM, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Maitra A, Klein AP, Cameron JL, Olino K, Schulick R, Winter J, Vogelstein B, Velculescu VE, Kinzler KW, Hruban RH. Genetic Mutations Associated With Cigarette Smoking in Pancreatic Cancer. Cancer Res. 69:3681-8, 2009.

Shi C, Klein AP, Goggins M, Maitra A, Canto M, Ali S, Schulick R, Palmisano E, Hruban RH. Increased prevalence of precursor lesions in familial pancreatic cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 15:7737-43, 2009.

Jiao Y, Shi C, Edil BH, de Wilde RF, Klimstra DS, Maitra A, Schulick RD, Tang LH, Wolfgang CL, Choti MA, Velculescu VE, Diaz LA, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW*, Hruban RH*, Papadopoulos N*. DAXX/ATRX, MEN1 and mTOR pathway genes are frequently altered in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Science. 331:1199-203, 2011

Matthaei H, Hong SM, Mayo SC, dal Molin M, Olino K, Venkat R, Goggins M, Herman JM, Edil BH, Wolfgang CL, Cameron JL, Schulick RD, Maitra A, Hruban RH. Presence of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the pancreatic transaction margin does not influence outcome in patients with R0 resected pancreatic cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 18:3493-9, 2011.

Hong SM, Goggins M, Wolfgang CL, Schulick RD, Edil BH, Cameron JL, Handri-Luca A, Herman JM, Hruban RH. Vascular invasion in infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas can mimic pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a histopathologic study of 209 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 36:235-41, 2012.

Wu J, Jiao Y, dal Molin M, Maitra A, de Wilde RF, Wood LD, Eshleman JR, Goggins MG, Wolfgang CL, Canto MI, Schulick RD, Edil BH, Choti MA, Adsay V, Kimstra DS, Offerhaus GJ, Klein AP, Kopelovich L, Carter H, Karchin R, Allen PJ, Schmidt CM, Naito Y, Diaz LA, Kinzler KW, Papadopoulos N, Hruban RH*, Vogelstein B*. Whole-exome sequencing of neoplastic cysts of the pancreas reveals recurrent mutations in components of ubiquitin-dependent pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 108:21188-93, 2011.

Roberts NJ, Jiao Y, Yu J, Kopelovich L, Petersen GM, Bondy ML, Gallinger S, Schwartz AG, Syngal S, Cote ML, Axilbund J, Schulick R, Ali SZ, Eshleman JR, Velculescu VE, Goggins M, Vogelstein B, Papadopoulos N, Hruban RH*, Kinzler KW*, Klein AP*. ATM mutations in patients with hereditary pancreatic cancer. Cancer Discovery. 2:41-6, 2012.

*=co-senior authors

Email rander54@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 955-3511

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Liver Cancer

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Robert A. Anders, M.D., Ph.D.

Primary Appointment in Pathology

My laboratory's interests focus on the basic processes that lead to liver cell death and division. We approach these questions through the use of both experimental models and examination of human tissues. We are specifically interested in how the Hippo pathway controls the livers response to injury and malignant transformation. We have uncovered this pathway as a key mediator of hepatocyte and cholangiocyte biology.

Please visit Publications web link on left

Email jboitnot@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 955-8377
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John K. Boitnott, M.D.

Primary Appointment in Pathology
Former Pathologist-in-Chief, Johns Hopkins Hospital

My principal area of interest is liver disease with an associated interest in disease of the biliary tract and pancreas. Most of my work involves collaborative clinico-pathologic studies. Areas in which there are now particularly good opportunities for such studies at Johns Hopkins include: liver transplants, bone marrow transplants, hepatic neoplasms, Budd-Chiari syndrome, sclerosing cholangitis, bile duct carcinomas and pancreatic carcinomas.

Diehl AM, Boitnott JK, Herlong HF, Potter JJ, Van Duyn MA, Chandler E,Mezey E. Effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation in alcoholichepatitis. Hepatology 5:57-63, 1989.

Christensen WN, Boitnott JK, Kuhajda FP. Immunoperoxidase staining as adiagnostic aid for hepatocellular carcinoma. Mod Pathol 2:8-12, 1989.

Allison DC, Bose KK, Hruban RH, Piantadosi S, Dooley WC, Boitnott JK,Cameron JL. Pancreatic cancer cell DNA content correlates with long-termsurvival after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Ann Surg 214:648-656, 1991.

Ayuse T, Brienza N, Revelly JP, Boitnott JK, Robotham JL. The role ofnitric oxide in the porcine liver circulation under normal and endotoxemic conditions. J Appl Physiol 78:1319-1329, 1995.

Email tcornis3@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 955-5963

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Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology

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Toby C. Cornish, M.D., Ph.D.

Primary Appointment in Pathology


Email jeshlem@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 955-3511
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James R. Eshleman, M.D., Ph.D.

Primary Appointment in Pathology; Secondary Appointment in Oncology
Member, Graduate Program in Pathobiology; Member, Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine; Associate Director, Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory

Pancreatic cancer is the 10th leading cause of new cancers in the US, but the 3rd most common in cancer deaths. The 5-year survival of pancreatic cancer is currently less than 5%. Critical to improving these statistics is a full and detailed understanding of the gene mutations in pancreatic cancer, and familial predispositions. Towards this end, we recently performed full exomic sequencing for 24 pancreatic cancers and reported a new familial predisposition gene. Other ways to impact on this disease are early detection, molecular subclassification, and novel therapeutics.

My research laboratory is also involved in translational research in molecular diagnostics and basic science research on novel therapeutics. We have recently reported a novel method for point mutation detection, and are currently incorporating this strategy for early detection of pancreas cancer in collaboration with Drs. Michael Goggins Chris Gocke and Ralph Hruban.

I also have a significant interest in nucleic acid based novel therapeutics. Recently, we have developed a novel strategy to select against specific cell populations using "anti-gene padlocks." Anti-gene padlocks are oligonucleotides capable of reacting and intertwining with DNA followed by end-to-end ligation. We have demonstrated their activity in bacterial cells, where once bound and ligated, the padlock is inextricably attached. If the target is present in a bacterial cell's chromosome, the cell is killed. Experiments are currently underway to determine the critical features of anti-gene locks, the mechanism of cell death and whether this novel therapeutic can be used to target human cells in a similar fashion.

I also have special interests in Molecular Pathology.


Shi C, Eshleman SH, Jones D, Fukushima N, Hua L, Parker AR, Yeo CJ, Hruban RH, Goggins MG, and Eshleman JR. LigAmp for Sensitive Detection of Single Nucleotide Differences. Nature Methods, 1: 141-147, November, 2004.

Shi C, Parker AR, Hua L, Morrell CN, Lee SC, Bandaru W, Wu TC and Eshleman JR. Anti-gene padlocks kill bacterial cells based on their genotype. Submitted.

Shi C, Fukushima N, Abe T, Bian Y, Hua L, Wendelburg BJ, Yeo CJ, Hruban RH, Goggins MG, and Eshleman JR. Sensitive and quantitative detection of KRAS2 gene mutations in pancreatic duct juice differentiates patients with pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis, potential for early detection. Cancer Biol Ther, 3/2008; 7:260-7.

Jones S, Zhang X, Parsons DW, Lin JC, Leary RJ, Angenendt P, Mankoo P, Carter H, Kamiyama H, Jimeno A, Hong SM, Fu B, Lin MT, Calhoun ES, Kamiyama M, Walter K, Nikolskaya T, Nikolsky Y, Hartigan J, Smith DR, Hidalgo M, Leach SD, Klein AP, Jaffee EM, Goggins M, Maitra A, Iacobuzio-Donahue C, Eshleman JR, Kern SE, Hruban RH, Karchin R, Papadopoulos N, Parmigiani G, Vogelstein B, Velculescu VE, and Kinzler KW. Core signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancers revealed by global genomic analyses. Science. 9/2008; 321:1801-6.

Shi C, Hong SM, Lim P, Kamiyama H, Khan M, Anders RA, Goggins M, Hruban RH, and Eshleman JR. KRAS2 mutations in human pancreatic acinar-ductal metaplastic lesions are limited to those with PanIN: Implications for the human pancreatic cancer cell of origin. Mol Cancer Res, 2/2009; 7:230-6 [NIHMS #89589].

Jones S, Hruban RH, Kamiyama M, Borges M, Zhang X, Parsons DW, Cheng-Ho Lin J, Palmisano E, Brune K, Jaffee EM, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Maitra A, Parmigini G, Kern SE, Velculescu VE, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Eshleman JR, Goggins M, and Klein AP. Exomic sequencing identifies PALB2 as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene. Science. 4/2009; 324:217.

Shi C, Chandrasekharan A, Thuluvath PJ, Karikari C, Argani P, Goggins M, Maitra A, and Eshleman JR. Ultrasensitive detection of KRAS2 mutations in bile and serum from patients with biliary tract carcinoma using LigAmp technology. J Molec Diagnostics. In Press.

Email mgoggins@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 955-3511

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PC Early Detection Lab

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Michael G. Goggins, M.D.

Primary Appointment in Pathology; Secondary Appointments in Medicine, Oncology
Member, Graduate Program in Pathobiology

I am a gastroenterologist with a research laboratory dedicated to identifying translational opportunities in pancreatic cancer. Improving the prognosis of such a deadly disease will require advances in our ability to identify at-risk individuals, establish screening tests to identify earlier-stage disease, and to continue elucidating the biology of the disease. Currently, the laboratory is investigating the utility of detecting DNA methylation, DNA mutation and proteomic alterations to determine which markers are the most accurate markers of pancreatic cancer. We have also used gene expression data from microarrays and other sources as a way to identify markers of pancreatic cancer.

We are also pursuing proteomic approaches using protein chip technology and 2D gel electrophoresis to identify protein markers of pancreatic cancer that could be used for early diagnosis. We are also trying to identify genetic abnormalities that contribute to familial pancreatic cancer risk. We participate in a nationwide multicenter linkage study (PACGENE), the pancreatic cancer genetic epidemiology consortium to identify familial pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes. We are also characterizing genetic changes in familial pancreatic neoplasms to identify changes unique to these tumors. DNA methylation changes contribute to many of the biological properties of pancreatic cancer and we are determining why such changes occur during pancreatic cancer development and the biological significance of silencing genes by methylation in pancreatic neoplasia.


Koopmann J, Buckhultz P, Brown DA, Zahurak M, Sato N, Fukushima N, Sokoll L, Chan D, Yeo CJ, Hruban RH, Breit S, Kinzler K, Vogelstein B, Goggins M. Serum Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 as a marker of Pancreatic and other Periampullary cancers. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:2386-92.

Sato N, Maehara N, Su GH, Goggins M. Effects of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine on matrix metalloproteinase expression and pancreatic cancer cell invasiveness. J Natl Cancer Institute 2003:95:327-30.

Sato N, Fukushima N, Anirban Maitra, Matsubayashi M, Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, Hruban R, Goggins M. Discovery of novel targets for aberrant methylation in pancreatic carcinoma using high-throughput microarrays. Cancer Res:2003;633735-42.

Sato N, Ueki T., Fukushima N, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, Hruban RH, Goggins M. Aberrant Methylation of CpG Islands in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas Increases with Histological Grade. Gastroenterology 2002; 123;365-72.

Rosty C, Christa L, Kuzdzal S, Baldwin WM, Zahurak ML, Carnot F, Chan DW, Canto M, Lillemoe KD, Cameron JL, Yeo CJ, Hruban RH, Goggins M. Identification of hepatocarcinoma-intestine-pancreas/pancreatitis-associated protein I as a biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by proteinbiochip technology. Cancer Res. 2002 Mar 15;62(6):1868-75.

Email skern1@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 614-3314
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Scott E. Kern, M.D.

Primary Appointment in Oncology; Secondary Appointment in Pathology
Member, Graduate Program in Human Genetics and Molecular Biology; Member, Graduate Program in Pathobiology

I am a cancer geneticist and gastrointestinal pathologist interested in clonal genetic changes in neoplasia. This has included genetic alterations in colorectal and pancreatic carcinoma, their association with pathological characteristics and prognosis, cloning of the DCC and DPC4 genes, localization of the BRCA2 gene, identifying the causes of familial pancreatic cancer, the DNA-binding characteristics of p53 and DPC4, the functional basis of cancer biomarkers, and the principles of genotype-specific anticancer therapy.


Kern SE, Kinzler KW, Bruskin A, Jarosz D, Friedman P, Prives C, Vogelstein B.Identification of p53 as a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. Science 252:1708-11, 1991.

Hahn SA, Schutte M, Hoque ATMS, Moskaluk CA, da Costa LT, Rozenblum E,Weinstein CL, Fischer A, Yeo CJ, Hruban RH, Kern SE. DPC4, a candidate tumor-suppressor gene at human chromosome 18q21.1. Science 271:350-353,1996.

Brody JR, Calhoun ES, Gallmeier E, and Kern SE. Ultra-fast, high-resolution agarose electrophoresis of DNA and RNA using low-molarity conductive media. BioTechniques 2004; 37:598-602.

Hucl T, Rago C, Gorospe M, Kern SE. A syngeneic variance library for functional annotation of human genetic variation: Application to BRCA2 exon 27. Cancer Res 2008; 68:5023-30

Ren RY, Patel K, Paun BC, Kern SE. Structural analysis of the cancer-specific mesothelin promoter/enhancer sequences. JBC 2011; 286:11960-9.

Email annele@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 955-9297

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Article Press Release

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Anne Le, M.D., M.Sc.

Primary Appointment in Pathology

My research is primarily focused on cancer metabolism, specifically studying the key enzymes of glycolysis and glutaminolysis: lactate dehydrogenase A and glutaminase. My research has shown that the inhibition of these enzymes induced oxidative stress thereby inhibiting tumor progression, demonstrating that targeting these metabolic processes can be used in the near future as a feasible cancer therapy. Using a Metabolomics approach, my laboratory is defining the factors that predict the sensitivity of pancreatic cancers to current chemotherapies and also to our novel small drug-like molecules. Our goal is to characterize and enable targeted selection of patients based upon predicted metabolic response. Furthermore in this pursuit, we have developed an innovative dual fluorescent protein reporter, termed HypoxCR, which can simultaneously detect cells that are hypoxic and/or cycling to study the effects of the tumor's microenvironment on the sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors.

Le A, Lane NA, Hamaker M, Bose S, Barbi J, Tsukamoto T, Rojas CJ, Slusher BS, Zhang H, Zimmerman LJ, Liebler DC, Slebos R, Lorkiewicz P, Higashi RM, Fan WMT and Dang CV. Glucose-independent glutamine metabolism via TCA cycling for proliferation and survival in human B lymphocytes. (Co-corresponding author). Cell Metab. 2012 Jan 4;15(1):110-21.

Le A, Cooper CR, Gouw AM, Dinavahi R, Maitra A, Deck LM, Royer RE, Vander Jagt DL, Semenza GL, Dang CV. Inhibition of Lactate Dehydrogenase A Induces Oxidative Stress and Inhibits Tumor Progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 2; 107(5):2037-42.

Yustein J, Liu Y, Gao P, Jie C, Le A, Vuica-Ross M, Chng W, Eberhart C, Bergsagel L, Dang CV. Induction of ectopic Myc target gene, JAG2, augments hypoxic growth and tumorigenesis in a human B cell model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 23;107(8):3534-9.

Dang CV, Le A, Gao P. MYC-induced cancer cell energy metabolism and therapeutic opportunities. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 1; 15(21):6479-83.

Le A, Zielinski R, He C, Crow MT, Biswal S, Tuder RM, Becker PM. Pulmonary epithelial neuropilin-1 deletion enhances development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Sep 1; 180(5):396-406 (Cover image).

Email emontgom@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 614-2308

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Barrett's Esophagus Web

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Elizabeth A. Montgomery, M.D.

Primary Appointment in Pathology

My research efforts are clinicopathologic studies of well-characterized and novel entities encountered in surgical pathology using both conventional light microscopy and newer techniques. Specific interests include several topics in gastrointestinal pathology, especially Barrett esophagus. I look forward to additional clinicopathological work using newer technology. I also have a strong interest in soft tissue pathology and recent studies have been of telomeres in translocation-associated sarcomas compared to chromosome unstable types.

Montgomery E, Bronner M, Goldblum J, Greenson J, Haber M, Hart J, Lamps L, Lauwers G, Lazenby A, Lewin D, Robert M, Toledano A, Shyr Y, Washington K. Diagnostic reproducibility of dysplasia in Barrett esophagus (BE): Are affirmation. Human Pathology 2001; 32: 368-78.

Montgomery E, Goldblum J, Greenson JK, et al. Dysplasia as a predictive marker for invasive carcinoma in Barrett's esophagus; A follow-up study basedon 138 cases from a diagnostic variability study. Human Pathology 2001; 32:379-388.

Montgomery E, Wilentz R, Argani P, Hruban RH, Fisher C, Kern SE, Lengauer C. Analysis of Anaphase Figures in Routine Histologic Sections Distinguishes Chromosomally Unstable From Chromosomally Stable Malignancies. Cancer Biology and Therapy 2003;3:248-52

Montgomery E, Argani P, Hicks JL, DeMarzo AM and Meeker AK. In situ analysis of telomere lengths in translocation associated and non-translocation associated sarcomas. Am J Pathol 2004; 164: 1523-1529.

Hansel DE, Dhara S, Huang RC, Ashfaq R, Deasel M, Shimada Y, Bernstein HS, Harmon J, Brock M, Forastiere A, Washington MK, Maitra A, Montgomery E. CDC2/CDK1 Expression in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Precursor Lesions Serves as a Diagnostic and Cancer Progression Marker and Potential Novel Drug Target. Am J Surg Pathol. In press [2005].

Email lvoltag1@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 955-3580
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Lysandra Voltaggio, M.D.

Primary Appointment in Pathology

Temporary Text

Voltaggio, L., Montgomery, E.A. Gastric Mesenchymal Lesions Other Than Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor. Diagnostic Histopathology. 2014. June; 20(6): 228-238

Voltaggio, L., Montgomery, E.A., Ali, M.A., Singhi, A.D. Arnold, C. Sex, Lies, and Gastrointestinal Tract Biopsies: A Review of Selected Sexually Transmitted Proctocolitides. Advances in Anatomic Pathology. 2014. March; 21(2): 83-93.

Arnold, C.A., Montgomery, E.A., Voltaggio, L. Syphilitic and Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV) Proctocolitis: Clues to a Frequently Missed Diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013 Jan;37(1):38-46.

Ali, A., Lam-Himlin, D., Voltaggio, L. Eosinophilic Esophagitis Clinical, Endoscopic, and Histopathologic Review. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 2012 Dec;76(6):1224-37.

Voltaggio L., Murray R., Lasota J., Miettinen M. Gastric Shwannoma: A Clinicopathologic Study of 51 Cases and Review of the Literature. Human Pathology. 2011 Nov 30. Epub ahead of print.

Email ldwood@jhmi.edu
Phone (410) 955-3511
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Laura Wood, M.D., Ph.D.

Primary Appointment in Pathology

My laboratory focuses on genomic and morphological characterization of pancreatic and liver neoplasms. Decades of cancer research have shown that cancer is a genetic disease caused by somatic mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. With rapid advances in sequencing and bioinformatics technology, whole exome or even whole genome sequencing studies of tumors can now be routinely performed. However, the next key step is utilizing these technologies to address specific clinically relevant questions about cancer genomes. My laboratory focuses on two such clinically relevant issues: (1) the transition from non-invasive precursor lesions to invasive cancer and (2) intratumoral heterogeneity. We investigate these questions with cutting-edge genomic approaches, including genetic analyses of single cells. In addition, in collaboration with Dr. Denis Wirtz in the School of Engineering, we also perform high-throughput phenotyping analyses of human tumors. The goal of these studies is to characterize the phenotypic determinants of invasion and heterogeneity as well as correlate tumor genotype and phenotype on the single cell level.

Sjöblom T*, Jones S*, Wood LD*, Parsons DW*, Lin J, Barber TD, Mandelker D, Leary RJ, Ptak J, Silliman N, Szabo S, Buckhaults P, Farrell C, Meeh P, Markowitz SD, Willis J, Dawson D, Willson JK, Gazdar AF, Hartigan J, Wu L, Liu C, Parmigiani G, Park BH, Bachman KE, Papadopoulos N, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE. The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2006 Oct 13; 314(5797):268-74.

Wood LD*, Parsons DW*, Jones S*, Lin J*, Sjöblom T*, Leary RJ, Shen D, Boca SM, Barber T, Ptak J, Silliman N, Szabo S, Dezso Z, Ustyanksky V, Nikolskaya T, Nikolsky Y, Karchin R, Wilson PA, Kaminker JS, Zhang Z, Croshaw R, Willis J, Dawson D, Shipitsin M, Willson JKV, Sukumar S, Polyak K, Park BH, Pethiyagoda CL, Pant PVK, Ballinger DG, Sparks AB, Hartigan J, Smith DR, Suh E, Papadopoulos N, Buckhaults P, Markowitz SD, Parmigiani G, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE, Vogelstein B. The genomic landscapes of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2007 Nov 16; 318(5853):1108-13.

Li M, Zhao H, Zhang X, Wood LD, Anders RA, Choti MA, Pawlik TM, Daniel HD, Kannangai R, Offerhaus GJ, Velculescu VE, Wang L, Zhou S, Vogelstein B, Hruban RH, Papadopoulos N, Cai J, Torbenson MS, Kinzler KW. Inactivating mutations of the chromatin remodeling gene ARID2 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat Genet. 2011 Aug 7; 43(9):828-9.

Wu J, Jiao Y, Dal Molin M, Maitra A, de Wilde RF, Wood LD, Eshleman JR, Goggins MG, Wolfgang CL, Canto MI, Schulick RD, Edil BH, Choti MA, Adsay V, Klimstra DS, Offerhaus GJ, Klein AP, Kopelovich L, Carter H, Karchin R, Allen PJ, Schmidt CM, Naito Y, Diaz LA Jr, Kinzler KW, Papadopoulos N, Hruban RH, Vogelstein B. Whole-exome sequencing of neoplastic cysts of the pancreas reveals recurrent mutations in components of ubiquitin-dependent pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011 Dec 27; 108(52):21188-93.

Wood LD, Heaphy CM, Daniel HJ, Naini BV, Lassman CR, Arroyo MR, Kamel IR, Cosgrove D, Boitnott J, Meeker AK, Torbenson M. Chromophobe hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt anaplasia: a proposal for a new subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma with unique morphologic and molecular features. Mod Pathol. 2013 May. Epub ahead of print.


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